Saturday, June 22, 2024 | 07:49 WIB

The dynamic of spreading international peace through multilateral diplomacy: reflection for the 78th United Nations birthday celebration

Jakarta, IO – On October 24, the United Nations, as the largest international organization, will shortly celebrate its 78th anniversary. The moment of celebration becomes such an awaited-time to show a more charismatic posture of UN performance itself before the international public, where their states are members. During the establishment of the UN, it seems this expectation was dynamic.

The world communities still witness an ongoing misery portrait regarding world security and climate crises. Certain observers say this happens because of an incapacity of anticipating potential conflicts by the Big Five of the UN Security Council/UNSC as the holder of Veto Rights. This criticism is also heard from the Secretary General of the UN itself, as he sounds the majority voice of UN members, especially from developing countries, in the form of UN reformation, including UNSC reform.

The members of the UN, with its organs, are believed to be able to formulate and conduct any resolutions as a standard product of international deliberation. It is usually intended to find a dynamic toward an unpopular resolution proposed in international security meetings. Such resolution proposals are frequently undermined by the unilateral veto from one of the big five permanent members of the UN Security Council, acting in their unilateral interest.

Meanwhile, the way to persuade and fight for the interests of other “non-Big Five” countries, representing other UN members, is channeled by the representative of Non-Permanent members of the UNSC; it seems to be coloring the sense of democratization of the UNSC itself.

Still, for that, a big question always arises once a war breaks out. Settlement of a conflict always involves the interests of the Big Five, based on their geostrategic commitments. For example, the settlement of the War between Russia and Ukraine; the Conflict in the Middle East; and conflicts between Palestinian and Israel, never to be settled under the UN forum. The case is always considered in the context of the Big Five permanent members, where cases are never settled multilaterally. For the case of Palestinian and Israel, the world sees the effort to organize the process along many tracks In fact, the issues is still there and even unfinished.

For this situation, multilateral diplomacy only seems to become a lobbying forum where any member country presents their national statement and conducts their approaches to other member countries that actually should be guarded with a series of technical programs. This approach needs proper preparation with other technical stakeholders on their national level, in order to prepare a technical program whose process and target must be realistic and aligned with their national interests and the UN charter itself.

Moehammad Amar Ma’ruf
Moehammad Amar Ma’ruf, Alumnus of Middle East Studies batch 2, University of Indonesia

In case of an armed conflict/war, any permanent and non-permanent members of UNSC may propose to form a peacekeeping mission under a resolution of the UN Security Council/UNSC. The Security Council has a vital role in securing this commitment and cooperation, while providing missions with realistic and clear mandates.

Peacekeepers protect civilians, actively prevent conflict, reduce violence, strengthen security and empower national authorities to assume these responsibilities. Meanwhile, their activities also include conflict prevention and mediation; peacemaking; peace enforcement and peace-building. There are at least 8 (eight) UN Peace Keeping Missions, such as MINUSCA (Central African Republican) with 16,960 troops; UNMISS (South Sudan) with 15,365 troops; MONUSCO (Republic Democratic of the Congo) with 14,641 troops; MINUSMA (Mali) with 13,358 troops; UNIFIL (Lebanon) with 9,282 troops; UNISFA (Sudan, South Sudan) with 3,045 troops; UNDOF (Israel, Syria) with 1,123 troops; and UNFICYP (Cyprus) with 865 troops. For this target, the effort needs very intense lobbying among members of UNSC, commitment, collaboration and coordination in their national level and international level, including with the Secretariat of the UN.

It is surely urgent to respect all related resolutions that have been adopted to settle the crises, not only related to Palestinian and Israelis, but also to other conflict resolutions. In the case of the Palestinian-Israeli issue, the proposal to apply a two-state solution and return the rights of Palestinians occupied by Israel must be conducted and guarded.

While this peace resolution and the proposal is there, the possibility to deploy a broader mission (Peacekeeping or Making a Mission for conflict prevention and mediation; peacemaking; peace enforcement and peace-building) must be strengthened, in order to allow the rights of Palestinians as stated in the agreed resolution achieved. It would be most appreciated if the UN Peacekeeping Mission in Syria is also giving humanitarian to Palestinians. If this is necessary, the Peacekeeping mission is mandated mainly for Palestinians and Israelis to be strengthened for optimizing their role and function.

It is admitted that the above approach is not the only way resulting from Multilateral Diplomacy to settle the issue. It is admitted that many positive activities are the product of multilateral approaches and have been submitted for conflict resolution, especially for public interest and utility. Considering the ongoing armed conflict is a threat to the lives of the public, the UNSC must act immediately to anticipate other potential victims from innocent people. For that, the presence of a Peacemaking and -keeping Mission is urgently needed.

In case the deployment is chosen by the UN for the issue of a and Israel peace process, it may open the opportunity for all members of the UN to contribute their capacity in sending their troops and equipment, based on existing regulations and mechanisms accordingly.

Indonesia is a country with experience sending troops – so it is not the first time. Indonesia may have a proper experience to share with other members, or may be joining with other international troops to be deployed. It is an honor to uphold the UN Charter, one that promotes peace and security by respecting human values.

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This achievement of UN participation may also upgrade the performance of the UN before the world community. As the highest international body mandated legally for making and keeping peace in the world, the UN represents the voice of humanity. This effort is also in line with the UN world agenda, namely, to include everyone in every step of inclusive development under its sustainable development program. It is also hoped that other International Organizations (Non-UN) will agree to support this collaborative action for the benefit of human beings and the environment.

Happy 78th UN Anniversary. May Allah Azza Wa jalla guide us to create peace in the world.