IO, Yogyakarta – The prevalence of osteoporosis is increasing globally. The number of hip bone fractures resulting from osteoporosis is estimated to rise from 1.12 million in 2018 to 2.56m by 2050.
Osteoporosis happens as a result of bone over-resorption. One way to attempt to decrease the risk of osteoporosis is to consume supplements which can reduce bone resorption resulting from osteoclast differentiation.
The PKM-PE group from UGM’s Faculty of Pharmacy has explored the use of the overflow of natural materials in Indonesia as anti-osteoclastogenesis agents to delay osteoporosis. The group, consisting of Marina Elsaida Harianja, Mila Hanifa, and Ahmad Naufal, researched the use of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) grounds, which contain various molecules that have pharmacological effects delaying differential osteoclasts.
“Chlorogenic acid is known to be able to inhibit differential osteoclasts mediated by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Kappa-B ligand (RANKL),” said Marina, the leader of the PKM-PE group, to the media on Monday (19/8/2019).
According to her, the inhibiting of differential osteoclasts can also inhibit osteoporosis. As a result, coffee grounds, which contain chlorogenic acid, have the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis, which may then potentially impede the onset of osteoporosis.
The team, who later received support and funding from the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, became more steadfast in their research exploring the potential of coffee grounds as an anti-osteoclastogenesis agent to inhibit osteoporosis. Osteoclastogenesis is the process of osteoclast formation differentiation from monocyte-macrophage lineage through receptors by the Receptor Activator of Nuclear Kappa-B (RANK).
“This research used an in-vitro method. The osteoclastogenesis is prepared using a macrophage cell system with the cell RAW 264.7 induced with an osteoclast-differential factor (sODF) or RANKL. The sample tested was in the form of an ethanolic extract of coffee grounds (EAK) obtained using an extraction method with 70% ethanol,” she said.
Marina stressed that there were four important aspects of her group’s research. First, the quality of the material. The manufacture of EAK samples proves Arabica coffee grounds (Coffea Arabica L.) in thin layer chromatography tests contain chlorogenic acid compounds.
Second, the chemical aspect. The flavonoid test shows that the EAK compound has a total flavonoid composition of 0.33% (b/b). Third, the biological aspect or the effects of cytotoxicity and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.
“EAK cytotoxicity was tested using the MTT assay method. The results of this test indicate that EAK is non-toxic to cell RAW 264.7. However, in further tests it was found that the administration of EAK could inhibit the process of osteoclastogenesis,” she said.
Fourth, the molecular aspect in the form of molecular docking. Test results show that chlorogenic acid interacts better than native ligand. This docking process’ validity has been confirmed with a fairly good RMSD value of <2.
From the four aspects above, the potential for coffee ground extract as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis to be developed as an inhibitor of osteoporosis can be appreciated. Furthermore, Marina explained that coffee grounds ethanolic extract was formulated in nanoemulsion dosage forms. This preparation was chosen based on the nature of hydrophilic chlorogenic acid, which makes it difficult to enter into the lipophile membrane which causes low bioavailability.
“Thus, to overcome this weakness, we present solutions in the form of nanoemulsion which is able to increase the bioavailability of chlorogenic acid and have other advantages, such as being practical, easy to consume, and able to improve with the pleasant odor of coffee grounds,” she said. (*/est)