- Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
Known commonly as a hybrid car, HEVs rely on partial electric power. The vehicles combine two drivetrains that are sourced from batteries and fuel. In HEV, the battery cannot be recharged externally, because it does not have a charging port. However, the battery can be charged when the vehicle is braking, similar to the BEV type where the electric motor functions as a generator that stores electrical energy into the battery. Hybrid cars can consume twice as much fuel as conventional cars. Several models of HEV cars are Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Prius Hybrid, and Toyota Camry Hybrid.
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) also rely partially on electricity. It operates using electricity and fuel simultaneously. PHEV batteries can be recharged externally or take advantage of kinetic movement when braking. Thanks to the combination of electric power and fuel, PHEV cars are believed to have a good level of fuel economy. Some PHEV cars are Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, BMW i8, and Toyota C-HR.
- Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
Fuel-Cell Vehicle (FCEV) or zero emission vehicle relies on fuel-cell to generate electricity. This type of electric car has not been widely used in Indonesia. The mechanism of FCEV is not much different from BEV. However, they can convert chemical energy from fuel-cell. So, this type of car produces its own electricity to run the vehicle. Some models include Toyota Mirai, Hyundai Tucson FCEV, and Honda Clarity Fuel Cell. (rr)