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The 2021 Hajj pilgrimage: Cancelled.. But why?

(Dok. Kemenag RI)

IO – As a country with the largest Muslim population in the world, Indonesia sends 220,000 Haj pilgrims every year—the highest Haj quota globally. However, Religious Affairs Minister Yaqut Kholil Qoumas announced that the government had decided to “cancel” the departure of Indonesian Haj pilgrims in 2021. 

The decision, conveyed in a press conference on June 3, 2021, immediately drew mixed responses—acceptance, criticism, and even sneers. Why should the public care about this decision? Isn’t Haj pilgrimage just a religious event? 

Minister Yaqut himself called the decision a “bitter” one. He said that the government had “… decided to cancel the departure of Haj pilgrims during the Haj season of 1422 H for Indonesian citizens who use the Indonesian Haj quota and other quotas,” as announced in Jakarta (03/06/ 2021). 

A bold but a bit hasty decision 

As bitter as it is, of course this decision deserves serious scrutiny and attention from the public for several reasons. First, this is the second “cancellation” in the past two years for Indonesian Haj pilgrims. The term “cancellation” here needs to be questioned, because it implies that previously a decision has been confirmed. On the contrary, the decision to allow the Haj pilgrimage for 2021 has not been officially announced by the highest authority in Saudi Arabia. From a policy perspective, the term “cancellation” used by the Religious Affairs Ministry sounds problematic. They should have chosen a better word to communicate such an important policy decision. 

Second, in the midst of a difficult time during the pandemic, this decision can be considered to be very bold, but also a bit hasty because, to date, perhaps Indonesia is the only country that has announced the cancellation—unilaterally—even before an official decision from the Saudi Arabian government itself whether or not they will allow Haj pilgrimage in 2021. 

To be honest, as an observer, I was shocked, even more than last year’s “cancellation”. I think this time the government has been too hasty in its decision to “cancel”, for whatever reason. Let’s compare other countries’ response to this matter. 

A day after this announcement, the Malaysian government, through Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department in charge of Religious Affairs Zulkifli Mohamad al-Bakri stated that “we are still waiting for an answer from the Saudi Arabian government regarding the departure of pilgrims from Malaysia to the Holy Land” (04/06/2021). Then he mentioned the importance of maintaining international diplomatic etiquette and manners, especially with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia regarding important Haj decisions. 

Then, the Indian government, through the Union Minister for Minority Affairs Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi, on June 6, 2021, said it was not yet clear whether the annual Haj pilgrimage in 2021 would be allowed or not. However, as reported by ANI news agency, the Indian government’s decision will solely depend on the Saudi Arabian government. Earlier, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that India would support whatever the Saudi government decides. 

Third, the government’s decision seems to be more focused on and heavily influenced by technical calculations, figures, and other administrative aspects related to Haj pilgrimage, while excluding other aspects. We heard the Minister Yaqut’s explanation that the Ministry had held various preparatory meetings and simulations since the end of 2020. Surely this is a very good thing, and deserves our commendation. But how much does the public know about these matters? How far and wide is the government’s familiarization on the preparations for the Haj pilgrimage known by the public? 

When the government said that the timeline for the Haj preparations was too “tight” so that it is not possible to send pilgrims, many thought the government had made a good calculation, and perhaps at the same time had considered input from Muslim organizations such as Muhammadiyah that recommended the government not send pilgrims for the 2021 Haj season. However, others also responded critically. 

In my opinion, the government seems less focused on seeking alternative models for Haj departure during the pandemic which requires attention to details, discipline, compliance to health protocols, but at the same time, flexibility. 

The government lacks sensitivity on non-technical matters related to Hajpilgrimage. The decision not to send pilgrims for two consecutive years must have had a big impact. In fact, the consequence can be profound, normatively and empirically. 

The Haj pilgrimage is the dream of every Muslim, and the holy city of Mecca is an important symbol, as we often see in photographs, paintings, calendars, calligraphy or even wall clocks. For Indonesian Muslims, Haj is the culmination of faith, the joyful and sorrowful experience of which is shared with friends and relatives. In the villages, tens or even hundreds of people would often accompany their relatives or neighbors who leave on a pilgrimage with prayers and hopes that one day they could also set foot in the Holy Land. 

Under normal circumstances, according to the calendar, the peak of the 2021 Haj pilgrim age should begin on the night of Saturday, July 17, 2021 until the night of Thursday, July 22, 2021, depending on the start of Dzulhijjah, 1442, or the 12th and last month of the year on the Islamic calendar. However, due to the Indonesian government’s decision to “cancel” this year’s Haj pilgrimage, the hopes of many pilgrims to carry out the fifth pillar of Islam have been dashed. According to a report, the waiting list for Indonesian pilgrims who have made a “down payment” to be in the queue has reached more than four million people. 

When calculated, the two-year absence would create a backlog of almost half a million (220,000 times two) of would-be pilgrims on the Religious Affairs Ministry’s waiting list. Although we all hope that this pandemic will be over soon, no one knows for sure when. This means we can never know how many more Haj seasons will would-be pilgrims have to wait. With the various projects to expand the pilgrim facilities in Mecca and Medina, we hope that Indonesian Haj quotas can be significantly increased. 

Indonesia didn’t get a quota? 

Fourth, the reasons put forward by the government are still centered on the Covid-19 global pandemic. That is, of course, a plausible reason. However, there are actually other factors that still didn’t add up, and observant members of the public actually know that until the day the government decides to “cancel” the Haj pilgrimage this year, Indonesia is still on the list of countries banned from flying into Saudi Arabia. Since April 2021, the civil aviation authority of Saudi Arabia has announced 20 countries that are banned from flying into the country, countries in Europe, America, Latin America, East Asia, and Asian countries that usually send pilgrims in large numbers such as India, Turkey and Indonesia. This ban was extended at end of April 2021. 

However, at the end of May, the Saudi Arabian government has lifted the “fly ban” for 11 countries, leaving only 9 countries on the list. And, herein lies the problem. Indonesia is still on it. 

The government should have elaborated more on this factor, and also taken appropriate steps in this regard. Why? Because the rumor in circulation suggest that the Indonesian government didn’t get a Haj quota from Saudi Arabia while other countries like Malaysia are said to have been granted “additional” Haj quota for 10,000 pilgrims. This is, of course, not true. We never know the real reason behind the ban. It could be purely the country’s policy to prevent imported Covid-19 cases. If this is the case then it must be respected by the international community, similar to the travel restrictions for foreign nationals imposed by other countries. 

Saudi Arabian Ambassador to Indonesia did say that the revocation of a fly ban for the 11 countries was not related to Haj pilgrimage not long after Minister Yaqut’s announcement. This was done in response to public chatter and rumors circulating on social media that Indonesia could not send its Haj pilgrims because it did not get a Haj quota in 2021. 

Unfortunately, the government has yet to pay specific attention to this matter, and has not explained that this is actually one of the significant factors and reasons behind the cancelation. Why? Because even if Saudi Arabia allow the Haj to go ahead this year and Indonesia gets a limited quota during the pandemic — perhaps far less than pre-pandemic figure — that doesn’t mean anything if Indonesia is still included in the no-fly list to Saudi Arabia. 

It’s widely known that Indonesian pilgrims for decades have been flown by Garuda Indonesia Airlines, apart from Saudi Airlines from various embarkation points in the country. In my opinion, the government, in this case the Religious Affairs Ministry, is less focused on addressing this issue and seems powerless in the face of torrent of criticisms and “bullying” by the public, especially on social and online media. 

In fact, if we pay closer attention, of the 11 countries whose landing rights were revoked, namely the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Germany, the United States, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, France and Japan, perhaps only the UAE that can potentially send its pilgrims because the other 10 countries have an insignificant number of pilgrims. 

It would be a different matter if Indonesia, Turkey, India or Pakistan – which are still on the list – are allowed to fly into the country. These are countries with a large Haj quota, as well as growing number of Umrah (a lesser non-mandatory pilgrimage that may be performed any time during the year) pilgrims. According to official records, before the pandemic, no less than 700,000 Umrah pilgrims from Indonesia fly to Saudi Arabia to carry out what is considered sunnah (the Prophet’s recommendations). If Saudi Arabia gives the green light for Umrah, surely many Indonesians would flock to Mecca and Medina. I believe this is the most plausible reason why Indonesia— as well as other countries with a large Muslim population—is still on the blacklist. 

My speculation is that Saudi Arabia does not want to immediately open the “floodgate” for countries with a massive wave of would-be Haj and Umrah pilgrims. In addition, of course the ongoing pandemic, the emergence of new variants, and how the Covid-19 outbreak has been handled by these countries could be a strong reason behind why Saudi Arabia is very protective of its territory from the worst scenario of triggering a Covid wave through imported cases. 

In fact, Saudi Arabia is actively responding to the pandemic, even implementing drastic measures such as multiple lockdowns, intercity travel restrictions, to entry ban to certain mosques in Mecca and Medina for residents or worshipers. In fact, since May 2021, news has circulated that Saudi Arabia is limiting the use of loudspeakers in mosques so as not to pull crowds. Things like this show that Saudi Arabia is actually very serious, and its Haj and Umrah Ministry stated that it has put in place all necessary precautions and health protocols for pilgrims. However, the highest decision-making body with a final say on Haj-related matters, which usually consists of the Haj and Umrah Ministry, Home Ministry, Transportation Ministry, Health Ministry, and Foreign Affairs Ministry have yet to, at the time of this writing, officially decide on whether or not they will allow the Haj pilgrimage to go on. 

Rumors and Hoaxes 

Apart from the cancellation, Haj quota, and flight ban, there are other problems plaguing the Haj season this year. Some of these have been widely talked about and some of them are obviously hoaxes. For example, it is alleged that one of the reasons behind why Indonesian pilgrims are being denied entry into Saudi Arabia is because the Indonesian government has not paid for their food and lodging. 

Several Haj and Umrah organizers I talked to said that this is clearly a hoax. Why? Because, in general, service-sector entrepreneurs – catering, lodging, hotels to transportation – in Saudi Arabia adopt a “first come, first served” system. This means that all logistics must be prepared, negotiated, and paid up long before the Haj and Umrah pilgrimage is performed. This can be proven by a letter of agreement and a letter of work contract in each service area. Only then can it be ascertained. 

Others even point out that Haj is the best example of “cash economy” where all transactions are done in “cash”. Of course, the transaction can be done online or via interbank transfer, but in practice everything can only be ascertained if it has been paid upfront. This is the meaning of “cash” here. 

Another issue concerns the type of vaccines used in the handling of the pandemic. The question is: is it true that the vaccine used in Indonesia – Sinovac – becomes a barrier to entry for Indonesian pilgrims because it is reported that Saudi Arabia only approves Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca and Moderna? 

This issue plagues the Indonesian government because Indonesia is a heavy user of Chinese Sinovac vaccine (technically, the name of the vaccine is CoronaVac). However, the truth is that the Saudi Arabian government implements very strict health protocols for pilgrims, if the pilgrimage is to be held this year. There are two conditions: first, would-be pilgrims must have been fully vaccinated. In Indonesia, that means, receiving two doses; and second, tested negative for Covid-19. These are very sensible because there are still many cases where vaccinated people were still tested positive, or become infected even after having been vaccinated. 

So, where does this issue come from? It is true that Saudi Arabia only recognizes certain types or brands of vaccines that have been approved by the WHO. This is where the problem lies, because as of the end of May 2021, it is true that Sinovac had not been approved by the WHO. Indeed, the Indonesian government, even the country’s Ulema Council (MUI) have to convince the public that Sinovac is halal (permissible) for Muslims to use. Many would-be pilgrims were worried and confused because of the uncertainty. 

However, on June 1, 2021, WHO eventually acknowledged and approved Sinovac for emergency use authorization. In my opinion, the Indonesian government should immediately clarify to the public that Sinovac is safe for pilgrims. It’s just a matter of explaining and asking for a more clarification from the WHO whether performing Haj can be considered an “emergency”. As simple as that. 

Like a wildfire, the issue spread to other areas, such as questioning the strength of Indonesia’s diplomacy with Saudi Arabia, and several other issues, some of which are plain hoaxes, such as accusations that Indonesia’s Haj funds have been used up for infrastructure buildup and so on. Here, the government still looks wobbly and fuzzy in its response to the accusations. Indeed, the Haj funds should have been invested. Even though there is a maxim that “the higher the risk of an investment, the higher the potential return,” the Haj Fund Management Agency (BPKH) has to do it. Why? Because the real cost to perform Haj has increased significantly over the years. For example, in 2019, it was estimated that the total cost could reach over Rp70 million. Meanwhile, the cost paid by the would-be pilgrim is only Rp35 million. This stark difference requires a large subsidy, even though it is taken from the Haj fund investment yield. This is what the government needs to pay attention to. 

So what’s next then? 

As the Indonesian saying goes “the rice has become porridge” (“what’s done is done”). An important, bold decision has been taken, and carried out with little haste. Many would-be pilgrims and members of the public are resigned: “Oh well, there is nothing else I can do” (hopeless, devastated). 

But, why should this be the outcome? And, if there is more that can be done, what would it be? The goal is, of course, to make sure that the Indonesian Haj pilgrimage management can be improved in the future. 

Of course, there is still room for improvement. The government, in this case the Religious Affairs Ministry, should focus more on dealing with Haj issues, because after all they are the one mandated and authorized by the law to do it. 

However, internal information from the Ministry shows that the top office in charge of Haj and Umrah –Directorate General for Haj and Umrah Management (Dirjen PHU) – is still being run by an acting head, even twice. This shows that, bureaucratically, there are still some obstacles and internal problems. In my opinion, for a job as important and strategic as Haj management, the government should be more decisive and thorough in resolving this so that it can focus on improving the performance of Haj administration. Even more so when it is to be conducted amidst the pandemic. 

Also, the government can educate the public and conduct familiarization on the preparation and management of the Haj pilgrimage in a straightforward and transparent manner. This is to avoid any perception that the government is only preoccupied with the technical aspects, while neglecting the non-technical ones: diplomacy, symbolism of the pilgrimage, and empathy for would-be pilgrims who have to wait long for their turn. Don’t forget that the majority of them do not live in urban areas. They are not technocrats and bureaucrats, or Millennials who can easily comprehend administrative matters and evaluate information in the digital era. Most of them are at an advanced age: small traders, farmers and fisherfolk who have low education. 

Conclusion and recommendation 

The government has made a bold decision, but it is a little flawed in the eyes of the public, because it was made a bit hastily. Many factors contributed to this, such as public pressure, criticism on social media, unclear and lack of clear-cut information from Saudi Arabia, lack of access for the Indonesian government from the Haj authorities in Saudi Arabia, and “tight” preparation time for departure, especially the challenges faced during the Covid-19 pandemic. 

And finally, the government resorted to saying that as we are still in the midst of a pandemic, it is vital to maintain the health and safety of pilgrims. Of course, this is a valid and sensible reason, despite the fact that Saudi Arabia is also preparing for the Haj pilgrimage under very strict health protocols. 

If possible, it is better that the Haj issues in the future can be discussed more comprehensively, especially under the extraordinary situation such as the ongoing pandemic. That is, the technical and non-technical aspects of Haj must be considered. The government should not only think normatively and administratively, but also act more flexibly in view of the pandemic. 

The involvement of educators, preachers and community leaders in providing simple explanations as well as during the decision-making process of a crucial event such as Haj would go a long way to help would-be pilgrims. 

Then, the government can cooperate with mass organizations, NGOs or civil society and immediately improve its public communication regarding the Haj, and how to effectively counter and respond to rapidly-circulating fake news, misinformation and hoaxes related to Haj and Haj fund management. These are some of the urgent issues it needs to address at the moment. 

Last but not least, the Religious Affairs Ministry can also invite and involve key players and stakeholders of Haj more broadly, including the pilgrims themselves. So far, the Indonesian Haj management seems overly bureaucratic, administrative and “quantitative”. The public needs to receive healthy and calming narratives in the midst of uncertainty, not news of “shocking” decisions. Hopefully, in the future Indonesia can give many positive contributions to Haj pilgrimage administration and how it can be managed properly and effectively. 

Dadi Darmadi is a Haj and Umrah researcher from the Center for Islam- ic and Community Studies (PPIM) of UIN (Islamic State University) Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta and a lecturer at the university’s Ushuluddin Faculty as well as its International Service and Partnership department head. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Islamic Studies and Comparative Religion at IAIN Ja- karta (1994) and received a Fulbright scholarship for his Master’s degree in Religious Studies from the University of Colorado at Boulder (1998). He earned his second Master’s degree in Social Anthropology from Harvard Universi- ty (2006), and completed his doctoral dissertation at Harvard University, USA with a focus on Haj, religion and bu- reaucratic culture in Saudi Arabia and Indonesia. His expertise is in anthropol- ogy, religion and public policy. (Dadi Darmadi)

Dadi Darmadi is a Haj and Umrah researcher from the Center for Islamic and Community Studies (PPIM) of UIN (Islamic State University) Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta and a lecturer at the university’s Ushuluddin Faculty as well as its International Service and Partnership department head. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Islamic Studies and Comparative Religion at IAIN Jakarta (1994) and received a Fulbright scholarship for his Master’s degree in Religious Studies from the University of Colorado at Boulder (1998). He earned his second Master’s degree in Social Anthropology from Harvard University (2006), and completed his doctoral dissertation at Harvard University, USA with a focus on Haj, religion and bureaucratic culture in Saudi Arabia and Indonesia. His expertise is in anthropology, religion and public policy. 

Women in the Indonesian Parliament committed to making gender equality a reality

Member of the Committee for Inter-Parliamentary Cooperation of the RI House of Representatives, Irine Yusiana Roba Putri

IO – At the conclusion of the Roundtable Discussion themed “Generating Commitments to Build Forward”, the Committee for Inter-Parliamentary Cooperation Member of the RI House of Representatives issued a statement of commitment to achieve gender equality by strengthening female participation in politics and the economy. 

A member of the Committee for Inter-Parliamentary Cooperation of the RI House of Representatives, Irine Yusiana Roba Putri reported that even though about half of the world’s population are women, they are still discriminated against, brushed aside, and marginalized. Women all over the world face difficulties in having their basic rights met in political, economic, cultural, and social situations.

“The current level of female participation (in politics) has de-creased thanks to the global health crisis caused by the severity of COVID-19. COVID-19has both exposed and deepened gender inequality,” Irine stated in a speech in Tangerang, Banten, on Tuesday (08/06/2021). “In turn, inequality of female access, specifically to political power and economic resources, has worsened the impact of the crisis to both society and the economy. Rebuilding civilization properly requires tougher, more equal actions.” 

Research shows that the higher the number of women in power in politics and economy, the more gender equality, social welfare, and environmental care be the core considerations of each new policy made. “For this purpose, the Parliament has the primary role of pushing a strong agenda for gender equality by strengthening female participation in politics and economy,” Irine said. “Through strong cooperation and collaboration with Women Political Leaders (“WPL”), female members of the Indonesian Parliament bear their responsibility to make gender equality a reality in Indonesia.” 

As a WPL Ambassador for Indonesia, Irine further expresses some points of commitment that Indonesian female parliament members will bring in global forums. “First, they intend to discharge their constitutional responsibility of formulating and improving the contents of regulations and the State Budet make them more pro-gender equality, and by strictly monitoring the implementation of their creation,” she said. 

Second, to strongly support global efforts to make gender equality a reality, including through the Beijing Declaration and Action Platform, the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, and the Generational Equality Forum. 

Third, actively maintaining strong and sustainable cooperation and collaboration with the Government, civil society, academicians, community figures, religious figures, media figures, and other influential institutions to jointly make gender equality a reality and mitigate discrimination and violence against women at national, regional, and global levels. 

Fourth, putting gender equality in mainstream legislation and national budget that involve society at large, constituents, and grassroot citizens, with the purpose of growing public awareness that full participation of women is extremely important for encouraging sustainable peace, welfare, and prosperity in society. 

Fifth, encouraging more women to be involved in decision-making positions in politics and productive economy. Female involvement in these sectors will generate positive impact to gender equality because they will be fighting for their own basic rights.

Sixth, harmonizing mitigation of the pandemic to a gender equality perspective by one, ensuring the equality in female representation in each planning and decision-making relating to COVID-19 mitigation; and two, targeting women in each effort to mitigate the socioeconomic impact COVID-19 by providing for them in new regulations, budgeting, and monitoring processes. And seventh, building and continuing international partnership with relevant organizations at national and global levels, including UN agencies and NGOs, by emphasizing female empowerment in politics and economy in order to encourage holistic approaches that will support gender inclusion and female empowerment. (des) 

Democrats annoyed as AHY called “outclassed by Airlangga”

Democrat Party General Chairman, Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono (“AHY”), and Golkar Party General Chairman, Airlangga Hartarto. (Photo: IO)

IO – Functional Group (Golongan Karya – “Golkar”) Party General Chairman Airlangga Hartarto is said to have a strong chance to become a candidate for the 2024 Presidential Elections. Many are trying to match him up for the position with many possible partners, among others with Democrat Party General Chairman Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono (“AHY”). 

However, Indo Barometer Executive Director Muhammad Qodari believes that it will be very hard for this duet to repeat an earlier partnership between Democrat and Golkar – one where Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (“SBY”) successfully became the President with Jusuf Kalla (“JK”) as his Vice President. “It is rather delusional if one should say that partnering AHY with Airlangga will generate a repeat of the glorious partnership between SBY and JK. AHY’s electability today is far different from SBY’s back in 2004,” he said. “This partnership will become a burden for Golkar. I feel sorry for Golkar Party, a party with so many seats secured, if their candidate is partnered up with a candidate with mediocre popularity, mediocre electability. I feel sorry for both Mr. Airlangga and for Golkar Party, really. They have such a vast difference in electability and experience. Mr. Airlangga has so much more experience in Government. AHY has never been a member of the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat – “DPR”), has never been a minister, has never been a regional head.” 

Qodari suggests that Golkar puts Airlangga Hartarto as candidate alongside another figure with similarly high electability. “It would be better for Golkar to put Airlangga Hartarto as a solo Presidential Candidate – or if they want to put him up as Vice Presidential Candidate, they should partner him up with an equally highly popular Presidential Candidate,” he said. 

Qodari went on to say that AHY cannot be equated with SBY. “But here is what I want to emphasize: The problems faced by my friends in the Democrat all occur because they keep on seeing as if AHY is the equal of SBY, while they absolutely cannot be compared with each other. In terms of a military career, SBY is a retired General (while AHY is only a Major); in terms of political career, SBY repeatedly became minister. In terms of electability, SBY was number two most popular in his first survey, then he became the top name. He is far above his son no matter how you look. It is no wonder that Democrat Party finds it hard to resurrect themselves, let alone to advance. Their view of AHY is unrealistic, as they keep on insisting that he is equal to SBY,” he said. 

Democrat Party expressed its opinion concerning Qodari’s views through the Party’s Deputy of the Central Leadership Council R & D Committee, Syahrial Nasution. He stated that Qodari’s analysis about the AHY-Airlangga partnership is weak and erroneous. “Qodari’s analysis is normative, showing that he doesn’t have the qualifications for being a researcher, let alone an good one. It’s erroneous to boot,” Syahrial declared to the press. “It shows that he has personal interest that he values more than his honor as an observer or researcher. The only logical conclusion I can make is that perhaps his rice bowl is broken, because he failed to oust AHY as a supporter of Moeldoko and the Sibolangit Extraordinary Congress.” (des) 

Parameter Politik Indonesia survey: “Prabowo Subianto has top electability”

Prabowo Subianto, potential presidential candidate with top electability according to Parameter Politik Indonesia. (Photo: Pramitha. Hendra/IO)

IO – A recent survey by Parameter Politik Indonesia (23-28 May 2021) reports that Minister of Defense, Prabowo Subianto, has the highest level of electability if the Presidential Elections were to be performed today. The survey involved 1,200 respondents who were selected randomly and proportionally, according to region. The survey’s margin of error is ± 2.9% with a reliability level of 95%.

Parameter Politik Indonesia’s  Executive Director, Adi Prayitno, stated that Prabowo has top electability, at 18.3%, in a recent simulation containing 15 Presidential Candidates. He is followed by the Governor of Central Java, Ganjar Pranowo (16.5%), and Governor of DKI Jakarta, Anies Baswedan (15.1%). “In terms of Presidential Candidates’ electability, Prabowo, Ganjar Pranowo, and Anies Baswedan are consistently in the top three. The competition between them is fierce, but none of them ever got lower than the top three position,” he said during the Survey’s formal release of results on Saturday (05/06/2021). 

The top three are followed by the General Chairman of Partai Demokrat Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono (7%), Governor of West Java Ridwan Kamil (6%), Minister of Social Affairs Tri Rismaharini (5.5%), and Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy Sandiaga Uno (5.4%). Other figures with electability lower than 3% were also mentioned in the survey: Jusuf Kalla, Khofifah Indar Parawansa, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Gatot Nurmantyo, Puan Maharani, Erick Thohir, Mahfud M. D., and Abdul Somad. 12.3% of respondents said that they “don’t know” or refused to answer. 

Parameter Politik Indonesia performed several surveys that simulate Elections using 15, 10, 5, and 3 names of Presidential Candidates. In the 10-name and 5-name surveys, the names of Prabowo, Ganjar, and Anies are consistently in the top three, respectively. In the 3-name survey, Prabowo’s electability is 24.8%, followed in order by Ganjar (22.1%), and Anies (20.9%), with 32.2% respondents declaring “don’t know” or refused to answer. “When it’s all narrowed into the top three, the electability gap between candidates gets smaller. If you narrow it down further to a headto-head candidacy, the electability barrier will become even thinner,” Adi said. 

Other than the possible Candidates’ electability, the Parameter Politik Indonesia survey shows that Indonesians tend to want Presidential Candidates with an image of “strictness” and “discipline” instead of Presidential Candidates with good performance, recording the above as the most popular reason for respondents when selecting Presidential Candidates at 7.8%. The number two reasons are “close to the people” and “good job performance”, both selected by 5.5% of respondents. Other reasons for election found in the survey: “Friendly and courteous” (3.2%), “dignified” (3%), “intelligent and smart” (2.8%), “able to lead Indonesia into the future” (2.8%), “originates from the military” (2.6%). 

The survey concludes that most of our citizens (36.3% of respondents) elect Presidential Candidates because of psychological reasons (e.g. “strict and disciplined” and “close to the people”, as opposed to rational or logical reasons (e.g. “good job performance” and “highly experienced”), which only 10.5% respondents affirmed. The remaining 3.2% of respondents elect Presidential Candidates based on sociological reasons, such as “pro to the interests of Islam”. “These facts show that building emotional image and closeness, making use of group-base sentiments if possible, is still much more important for Indonesian voters than excellent work program,” said the Parameter Politik Indonesia survey report. 

Lombok Airport to be ready before the Mandalika MotoGP event

Chief of Presidential Staff Moeldoko. (Photo: Biro Pers Istana)

IO – Chief of Presidential Staff Moeldoko said his party has guaranteed the completion of the Lombok International Airport (BIL) development, on time, so that it could operate before the Mandalika MotoGP event. 

He also expressed his appreciation for the development of the Lombok Airport development project in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), whose management is now under the auspices of PT Angkasa Pura I (Persero). “To welcome the MotoGP event in Indonesia, airport infrastructure should not be an obstacle, because the development of this airport is targeted to be fully done before the MotoGP. We will oversee the timeline and completion target. Hopefully, later, after being ready to operate, this airport can be inaugurated by the President,” he said while reviewing the Lombok Airport development project, Monday (7/6/2021). 

The airport development is a National Strategic Project (PSN). The Presidential Staff Office carried out routine monitoring, evaluation, and verification in October 2020. Following Presidential Regulation No. 109 of 2020, the project was supported not only for the good name of PT Angkasa Pura I (Persero) but for the good name of the country. “The airport is Indonesia’s main gateway in welcoming foreign tourists,” he explained. 

Moeldoko, who was accompanied by Deputy I Chief of Presidential Staff Febry Calvin Tetelepta, also said that the Presidential Staff Office had coordinated with Angkasa Pura I and the Ministry of PUPR regarding the Lombok Mandalika International Airport bypass road. 

Febry Calvin Tetelepta said that the development of Lombok International Airport is not only to support the implementation of Superbike and MotoGP but also to support economic activities and community mobility. 

According to Angkasa Pura I President Director Faik Fahmi, the airport development is to fully support the Mandalika Special Economic Zone (SEZ) which is the location for Superbike and MotoGP as well as Lombok and NTB tourism development in general. 

With this development, the terminal capacity of Lombok International Airport will be double the current one, from 3.25 million passengers per year to 7 million. 

The Lombok International Airport development project is projected to cost around IDR 1 trillion in investment. In addition to expanding the terminal and its supporting facilities and renovating the existing terminal, airport development is carried out by extending and increasing the carrying capacity of the runway, expanding the west side apron, developing cargo facilities, as well as expanding the passenger parking area and arranging a waving gallery. 

The Lombok International Airport runway is currently being expanded from 2,750 meters to 3,300 meters and its carrying capacity is being increased so that it can support the operations of wide-body aircraft such as the Boeing 777 and MotoGP logistics cargo aircraft. 

The west side apron expansion project will increase aircraft parking capacity from the current 18 narrow-body aircraft and 4 widebody aircraft to 18 narrow-body aircraft and 6 wide-body aircraft. 

In the development of cargo facilities, the cargo terminal yard will be expanded and an access road to a separate bypass road will be built with public road access to the passenger terminal. “This will support cargo transportation from the airport to the Mandalika MotoGP Circuit and vice versa,” he said. 

General Manager of Lombok Airport Nugroho Jati added that the access road will support the speed of cargo transportation from the airport to the Mandalika MotoGP Circuit and vice versa. (eka) 

KRI Nanggala-402 Salvage officially concluded

KRI Nanggala-402.

IO – The operation to lift the KRI Nanggala-402 submarine from the bottom of Balinese waters officially ended last Wednesday (02/06/2021). The Operation was jointly performed by Indonesian domestic agencies (including the National Police, the Maritime Security Agency, and the National Search and Rescue Agency) with the help of foreign countries, including China, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, and the United States. “The rescue is ended,” said the Head of the Naval Forces’ Information Office, First Admiral Julius Widjojono, on Wednesday (02/06/2021). 

The Operation was based on images recorded by Indonesian ship KRI Rigel-933, which were employed by Singaporean rescue ship MV Swift Rescue. 13 underwater operations performed jointly with China generated more comprehensive images and videos of the parts of the sunken submarine. The location of its bow and the emergency estimate reference point (datum) is about 47 meters. The sea floor is described as muddy, and this was confirmed by the fact that a number of submarine parts and items were found to be covered in mud. 

Underwater observation discovered an unidentified area estimated to be an underwater crater with a diameter 36 meters at an estimated depth of 10-15 meters. The parts of KRI Nanggala-402 that are located and identified are the bow section, sail section, and stern section. However, these sections are located separately. The bow and sail sections were 107 meters away from each other, while the stern and sail sections were 36 meters distant. 

For the Lifting Operation of the KRI Nanggala-402, two Chinese military ships and one scientific ship outfitted with ocean floor survey equipment joined six ships deployed by the Indonesian Navy. The Chinese ships were Yongxingdao-863, Nan Tuo-195, and Tan Suo 2, while the Indonesian ships were KRI Rigel-963, KRI Yos Sudarso-353, KRI Hasan Basri-382, KRI Teluk Banten-516, KRI Pulau Rengat-711, and KRI Soputan-923. 

Before it was declared to have sunk on Saturday, 24 April 2021, all contact with KRI Nanggala-402 was lost on Wednesday, 21 April 2021. A 72-hour search was then mounted. During the search, Indonesian Army forces discovered oil spills and debris that served as evidence that KRI Nanggala-402 had indeed sunk. Debris include parts of torpedo tube straightener, cooling pipe wrapper, and an orange-colored bottle later identified as a container for submarine periscope lube. Praying equipment used by the Nanggala crew and sponges to withhold heat in the pressroom were also found. Based on these findings, the Indonesian Army declared the KRI Nanggala-402 to have sunk and all 53 of its crew members died in the line of duty. “With this authentic evidence from the Nanggala, we are forced to declare that the submarine’s status has changed from ‘submiss’ to ‘subsunk;,” said the Naval Chief of Staff, Admiral Yudo Margono, in an official statement. 

Efforts to lift up the remains of KRI Nanggala-402 started in early May 2021. Twenty dives were performed during the salvage operation. The Operation resulted in the identification of submarine parts and the salvage of hundreds of items. All of the items from KRI Nanggala-402 discovered underwater, including two life rafts weighing about 700 kilogram each, were delivered to the Indonesian Navy. The important materials salvaged during the Operation, as well as the various images and videos of the submarine, showed the success of the Joint Salvage Team’s hard work. 

Head of the Armada II Command’s Marine Security Task Force, First Admiral I Gung Putu Alit Jaya, admitted that the effort was far from being easy. The Operation was highly risky and difficult. Other than having to face risks due to the tides and pressures of the sunken depth of 830 meters, salvaging the submarine itself was extremely difficult due to its large size and weight. 

Now, the KRI Nanggala-402 and the stalwart sailors of the Hiu Kencana Company have gone home to their final resting place, to the region that they lost their life in guarding: the Indonesian seas. They are now on eternal patrol. Farewell, God bless on your final duty towards eternity! (eka) 

Indonesian Army combat readiness alarming, weaponry system investments an urgency

The Government plans to modernize TNI’s ancient and obsolete weaponry systems. (Photo: Rayi Gigih/IO)

IO – Executive Director of the Indonesian Defense Studies and Strategic Studies Institution (Lembaga Studi Pertahanan dan Studi Strategis Indonesia – “Lesperssi”) Rizal Darma Putra has declared that President Joko Widodo (“Jokowi”) and Minister of Defense Prabowo Subianto’s commitment to modernize the Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia – “TNI”)’ weaponry system deserves a vote of support. 

The Government’s plan to modernize TNI’s ancient, obsolete weaponry systems is part of the effort to satisfy Minimum Essential Force (MEF) requirements according to the National Strategic Plan. “Modernizing our weaponry system is an absolute necessity. The Government is on the right track with its 25-year Defense Investment Planning,” he said, in a written statement on Friday (04/6/2021). “There are two major benefits of this strategy: It allows consistency in securing our National Defense and Security Equipment, and it improves TNI’s NDSE readiness.” 

Information received by the Lesperssi declares that the Government is preparing strategies for funding primary defense equipment. First, the percentage of defense budget to GDP at 0.8% will remain consistent for 25 years ahead. Second, the budget set to cover National Defense and Security Equipment priority requirements for 2020-2024 will be USD 125 billion. Third, to seek alternative funding sources, to reduce the burden of securing National Defense and Security Equipment on the National Finances. “Even though it may sound fantastic, we must tell you that spending USD 125 billion on weaponry systems for 25 years is conservative. In fact, it is quite small when you compare it to potential Indonesia GDP for a quarter of a century,” Rizal said. 

Rizal went on to report that Indonesia’s defense expenditure continued to decrease in comparison to economic growth over the past six years. In 2013, national defense expenditure was 0.9% of GDP, down to 0.78% of GDP this year. “In other words, there is still room for the State to purchase new weaponry systems. In other words, Minister Prabowo has properly calculated the effective proportions for weaponry system investments,” he said. 

Andi Widjajanto, defense expert and primary defense politics analyst for LAB 45, expressed his amazement that the Government’s plan to modernize TNI’s weaponry system should be deemed as “controversial”. “It is perfectly understandable that the Government cannot be totally open about the plan for the Presidential Regulations concerning the Procurement of National Defense and Security Equipment. Most documents are classified, after all. When I heard that the budget will be set at IDR 1,760 trillion, I ventured to find out just how the Ministry of Defense arrived at a IDR 1.7 quadrillion figure without using its internal data,” he said in the Akbar Faizal Uncensored YouTube channel interview recently. “I don’t go in and sniff it out. Instead, I look for public data, such as data from military balance, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI),,” he said. 

Andi went on to deny the accusation made by military observer Connie Rahakundini Bakrie that the Government is being needlessly secretive when it created this regulation. “It is hugely regrettable that somebody leaked the document to the public. I personally believe that the IDR 1.7 quadrillion budget in the Draft Regulation has undergone proper procedures, such as the ones listed in the Defense Law, TNI Law, and Defense Industry Law. After all, the process for calculating budgetary needs for procuring weaponry systems in Indonesia has been systematically regulated since 2006.” 

Andi went on to say that IDR 1.7 quadrillion for procuring National Defense and Security Equipment cannot be called “fantastic”. “IDR 1.7 quadrillion is nothing, really. Actually, we need much more than that, but we must be realistic: our current economy cannot afford it. While current analyses show that we are not going to be in a state of war anytime soon, spending just that much is enough,” he said. 

He further denied Connie’s allegation that PT Teknologi Militer Indonesia (“TMI”) monopolizes our national defense industry. “Privately-owned companies can now participate in the defense industry in Indonesia since the validation of the Job Creation Law. In fact, we are open for foreign investors to invest in our defense industry. Really, it is simply impossible for PT TMI to monopolize defense procurement even though derivative regulations to the Job Creation Law are issued. Just using the most basic business calculation, it will take about IDR 600 trillion or about 30% of the total procurement requirement of IDR 1.7 quadrillion. It’s just too big an amount. No single company in Indonesia can afford it, not even if it is a State-Owned Enterprise,” Andi said.  (Ekawati)

Horison Group expands with the premiere of Horison Falatehan Jakarta

IO – As one of the largest hotel management companies in Indonesia, operating for more than 18 years, PT. Metropolitan Golden Management Horison Hotels Group strives to go forward by developing a hotel business network. PT. Metropolitan Golden Management Horison Hotels Group has been entrusted by PT. Arifindo Grha Pratama to operate The Falatehan Hotel by Safin under the brand name Horison Falatehan Jakarta. Horison Falatehan Jakarta provides complete facilities and services that can provide an unforgettable experience for hotel guests. This hotel is strategically located in Melawai, the business center of Jakarta, which makes it an ideal choice for both business and leisure matters. 

The official rebranding event took place on Wednesday, June 2nd. The event was attended by representatives of PT. Arifindo Grha Pratama, Wempi Adria as Director of Operations and Seprinandel Bermawi as General Manager. Meanwhile from PT. Metropolitan Golden Management – Horison Hotels Group also attended Mohamad Ridwan as Director, Bayu Waskito Nugroho as Sr. Vice President Sales Marketing O&P, Refino Mutshernar as Vice President Pre Opening & Recovery Business, Arif Rahman Mustofa as Vice President Sales & Marketing O&P, Iwan Kurniawan as Corp. Director of E-Commerce, Ayu Handayani as Corp. Assistant Director of Sales, Ferdy Daulay as 

Corp. Senior Sales Marketing Manager, Delta Dewa as Corp. Sales Manager, Bagus Hartawan as Corp. Assistant Human Resources Manager, and Novi Aryance as Corp. Finance & Accounting Manager. This event was internal, attended by the Head of Department and employee representatives with a limited number of invitations considering the current state of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

“Seeing business developments in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic and the new normal, we as hotel operators perceive an opportunity to become partners for hotels in recovery collaboration and as a form of support in the tourism sector in Melawai with the rebranding of Horison Falatehan – Jakarta as the 5th (fifth) hotel in Jakarta. With the expansion of this hotel business network, we will bring back new hotels in 2021 with the best quality and service,” said Refino as the person in charge of Recovery Business at Horison Hotels Group. 

Horison Falatehan Jakarta, which is located on Jl. Falatehan I No.26, RT.2/RW.1, Melawai, South Jakarta, is a three-star hotel (3) with a total of 8 floors, equipped with 2 elevators. The hotel consists of four (4) types of rooms, 8 of Superiors with an area of 24 m2, 75 of Deluxes with an area of 24 m2, 5 of Safin Suites with an area of 28 m2, and 4 of Falatehan Suites with an area of 32 m2. The total number of rooms is 92, equipped with an electronic lock system, jumbo & spacious room, private bathroom, hot & cold water, air conditioning (AC), full amenities, in-room safe deposit box, telephone facilities, complimentary drinking water, satellite TV program channels, LCD Plasma TV, working table, mini bar, tea & coffee maker, and hot spot internet access. This hotel is very suitable for tourist destinations because it is equipped with restaurant & lounge facilities, terrace café, sky garden, laundry & dry cleaning, business center, Wi-Fi internet access, 24 hour receptionist & security, and basement parking area. 

Not only for families: this hotel is also suitable for business people or for corporates who want to hold gatherings or meetings, as it offers Banquet and MICE facilities with 7 function rooms, with capacities ranging from 6 to 100 people which can be used according to needs such as meetings, exhibitions, weddings or other events. The meeting rooms include Cendrawasih, Komodo, Merak, Merpati 1, Merpati 2, VIP, and Maleo. 

For tourists, corporates, and families who have interests related to business matters or just want to stay & travel, Horison Falatehan Jakarta is quite suitable to be a place to stay, because of the location of the hotel which has a strategic location in the Melawai area, Jakarta which is dubbed as ‘Little Tokyo’ which is often visited for its culinary offerings and also as a shopping center. 

Collaboration for the nation empowers MSMEs

IO – The pandemic in Indonesia is still not over. For more than a year the business world experienced a slowdown, with many companies forced to cut costs by reducing the number of employees. This was seen with almost all MSMEs in Indonesia. Due to this condition, finally, business and SME actors implemented drastic changes in the company’s internal structure, to survive. 

The Tangan di Atas Community, or what is often called TDA, one of the entrepreneurial communities in Indonesia, saw this as very concerning. So that the national administrators made breakthroughs that can then rebuild the hopes of Indonesian MSMEs, especially TDA members, to unite and rise. 

The Tangan di Atas Community, through the 6.0 management period in 2019 – 2021, has promoted COLLABORATION FOR THE COUNTRY. The TDA 6.0 management then strengthened the narrative to rebuild the Indonesian economy through MSME actors during the pandemic. Various programs have been carried out under the direct supervision of the President of TDA, Dony Kris Puriyanto. 

Through the narration and programs that have been implemented, the community has received 4 awards all at once. One of the most impressive awards was the “Best Social Media Movement of The Year 2020” in the Business Education category by Metro TV. During the pandemic, even before that, Tangan di Atas was very concerned about education. Business Education plays a very important role in developing SME business. 

On May 31, 2021, the handover from the 6.0 management to the 7.0 period with the new President Ibrahim M Bafaqih was held at Garden Sunrise Resto – Umbul Sidomukti, Semarang, and LIVE on the TDA TV YouTube Channel. 

The legacy of the 6.0 management is useful not only for TDA members, but also for Indonesia. Even TDA has been widely known by the audience of MSME actors throughout Indonesia, Central and Regional Governments. 

President of TDA period 7.0 Ibrahim M Bafaqih stated that “COLLABORATION FOR THE COUNTRY” was born and with this narrative finally brought TDA to be increasingly known with various programs such as TDA TV, business education and getting 4 awards at once. In the 7.0 period, we will continue the narrative “COLLABORATION FOR THE COUNTRY”. 

After TDA is widely known, the next task is how to strengthen it internally. In line with this, the president of TDA 7.0 will also reaffirm the values of TDA. Through the internalization of these values, it can become stronger and can build a strong entrepreneur identity in all conditions. 

“We will bring TDA back to its values – Connected, Integrity, Open Thinking, Action Orientation, and Life Balance are what we will emphasize in this period. TDA is located in 100 cities/districts and 6 overseas, with 25,000 members registered a with TDA Passport. Another thing we will bring is EMPOWERMENT by connecting resource nodes in TDA. When my business was down, many mentors volunteered to help so that my business could run until now,” said Baim. 

Hopefully, this narrative can strengthen us internally and externally to be able to support each other and grow in business. TDA is committed to continuing to contribute to Indonesia, by creating strong entrepreneurs. 

Tax Amnesty II is useless; tax capital gains and inheritance

Gede Sandra Bung Karno University Economic Analyst seriousness and comprehensive efforts to accelerate the fulfilment of MEF. For example, they have reevaluated defense cooperation contracts that were deemed ineffi- cient, opened up window of cooper- ation with various countries so that we are not dependent on a single country, and lastly, they have also strived to beef up the national de- fense industry. So, the steps taken by the Defense Ministry have been no less comprehensive. We urgent- ly need to make key breakthroughs to have a strong national defense system in less the time it would normally take. Other than the things I have mentioned above, I concur that this grand plan certainly still has to be refined and finalized together with the Parliament.

IO – The Government’s plan to implement a tax amnesty for the second time around is simply illogical. There are two reasons for this: First, Tax Amnesty I in 2016-2017 clearly failed. The target of increasing tax income was not achieved. In fact, after the tax amnesty, tax income to the GDP (tax ratio) continued to decrease. Tax ratio in 2018 was 10.2%, down to 9.8% in 2019, and down again to 8.3% in 2020. If we implement a tax amnesty once again, our tax ratio might fall even further. A tax ratio crash will hit our economy even harder than it is already suffering. 

Therefore, the dream of giving our economic growth a “jumpstart” should be thrown out the window – especially since the officials – the President and the Minister of Finance – are the same as before. Wanting to repeat the same policy, using the same people, there’s no way you’d get different results! Really, as people frequently say, “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again but expecting different results.” 

Besides, no country in the world ever repeats a tax amnesty policy – unless there are “personal, urgent reasons” behind the whole thing… 

Second, Tax Amnesty I “whitewashed” all major tax cases of the past. In other words, past officials of the Ministry of Finance and Directorate General of Taxes who were involved in tax embezzlement cases prior to 2016 have smoothly escaped the clutches of the law. To put it bluntly, officials who insist on getting Tax Amnesty II implemented most likely have tax cases pending any time from 2016 to now (2021) that they want to have whitewashed. 

High officials have always tried to escape legal responsibilities, especially if they are incumbent Ministry of Finance or Directorate General of Taxes officials with something to hide. It’s just a ruse for covering their backs. Remember, one of such cases is actually quite recent: the Corruption Eradication Commission (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi – “KPK”) exposed a tax embezzlement case perpetrated by a coal mogul group from Kalimantan belonging to Haji Isyam. Rumor has it that the Haji Isyam Group is connected to one of the high officials strongly supporting a repeat of the tax amnesty. 

Money laundering, anyone? 

Capital Gains, Inheritance, Target Accounts > IDR 5 billion Should Be Taxed 

Indonesia is one of the few countries in the world that do not clearly regulate the taxation of capital gains, or income generated from capital. An example of a capital gains tax is one on the sale of shares, sovereign papers and properties. Many advanced countries in Europe and Asia set relatively high taxes on capital. The average capital gain taxes in Western European countries (France, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Portugal, Italy) is around 30%, while the average in East Asia (Japan, Korea, China, Thailand) is 20%. Even Malaysia sets a capital gain tax of 30%. 

In Indonesia, the sale of shares on the Exchange is only taxed at 0.1% of gross sales. Income from interest or sovereign market exchange discount is only 0.03% of the transaction value. Yes, brokers are imposed with a 10% VAT, but the value is peanuts because the tax is based on broker’s fee, which is usually not that much anyway (for example, the fee in futures market is only USD 30.00. At a VAT of 10%, the State only gets USD 3.00 per transaction). 

Yes, there is a 10% Corporate Income Tax on dividends. However, dividends are disbursed according to the current financial condition and internal decision made by the company. Furthermore, please remember that dividends are not capital gains. Even though, to take a correct example, sale and purchase at the property market is imposed with a 10% VAT, this amount is still just 13 of what Malaysia imposes! Yes, there is a regulation that stipulates capital gain tax at 25%, but that’s only for the sale of the shares of unlisted companies. That makes it harder to verify the transactions. 

To put it briefly, capital gain taxes barely exist, because the capital market itself is not taxed. This is significant. When compared with other, more advanced nations, Indonesia loves capital owners the most. Economically, Indonesia is strongly “right wing”. 

To resolve this, we suggest imposing a 20%-25% capital gain taxes on all activities of sale and purchase of shares and sovereign papers in the financial market. Our simulations show that the State’s annual tax income would increase by IDR 300-400 trillion, and our tax ratio would rise by 2%-3% if we implemented this policy. 

We also need to clarify regulations relating to inheritance tax. Our inheritance tax regulations are so vague, that the State loses the opportunity to tax on wealth transfer among rich families for literally decades. Therefore, we suggest a mandatory 5% inheritance tax for inherited family assets above IDR 5 billion. 

Another urgent action the Government needs to take is to include bank accounts at above IDR 5 billion as tax targets. Indonesia Deposit Insurance Corporation (Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan – “LPS”) data shows that the accumulated worth of these large accounts is IDR 3.282 trillion. That’s nearly half (48.8%) of the total accumulated worth of all bank accounts throughout Indonesia! Only 110,000 accounts are worth above IDR 5 billion throughout the country. Aren’t they suitable for Government taxes in the future? 




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